Selected Works

Charts the nature and evolution of warfare in ancient China.
A tour de force on ancient Chinese Ďspycraftí
The theoretical chapters from the innovative T'ang dynasty military manual.
"The most accurate, conscise, and usable English language translation available"
The crux itself with contemporary implications.
"A remarkable text from the widdle Warring States period"
"Should be in every library"
"Should be read by anyone interested in Chinese military thought"
A categorical compilation of early Chinese martial wisdom.
"Best of all translations I have seen of Chinese military philosophy"
The martial Tao Te Ching
The most popular Chinese oracle


   Only two of our earlier, unclassified works are currently out of print: Knowing Men and the Six Secret Teachings, the latter an expanded, single volume version of the Liu-t'ao that is included in our Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. The Seven Military Classics, Art of War, Complete Art of War, One Hundred Unorthodox Strategies, Tao of War, Tao of Deception, and Ling Chíi Ching have been translated into numerous languages, including Russian, Chinese, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Dutch, Lithuanian, Thai, and Polish.

Several articles and book chapters on military Chinese military topics might be of interest:
   ďChinese Warfare: The Paradox of the Unlearned Lesson,Ē an overview article on the traditional Chinese concept of warfare that was first presented at the Triangle Securities Studies seminars on the causes of warfare, found in the autumn 1999 issue of the on-line journal American Diplomacy.

   "Chinese Strategic Power: Myths, Intent, and Projections" found in the Winter 2007 issue of the Journal of Military and Strategic Studies (available at contains a lengthy paper originally developed for a 2006 continental defense conference.

   "Martial Qi in China: Courage and Spirit in Thought and Practice," Fall/​Winter 2008/​2009 issue of the Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, examines the concept of courage and evolution of the role of martial spirit in China.

   "Gunpowder in 13th Century China," Journal of the Ordnance Society, Volume 18 (2006)

   "Paradoxical Coexistence of Prognostication and Warfare," Sino-Platonic Papers 157 discusses the conflict between proponents of divinatory veracity and opponents who called for its complete rejection. (Additional material on Chinese martial prognostication will be found in the chapter "Martial Prognostication" included in Military Culture in Imperial China.)

   "Aquatic Warfare in Historical China" appears in Water, Geopolitics and the New World Order

   "Military Writings," included in A Military History of China, summarily discusses the important military texts in China's lengthy, continuous martial tradition.

   "Subversive Information: The Historical Thrust of Chinese Intelligence" in Intelligence Elsewhere provides a succinct account of traditional Chinese intelligence practices.

   Several projects long in process but unfortunately not yet realized include annotated translations of the Ming dynasty Ts'ao-lu Ching-lueh (Essential Ruminations from a Grass Hut) and our website ( which is intended to present occasional jottings, brief essays, notes, and comments on both early and contemporary Chinese military matters which remains under development. However, two works are forthcoming:

Conquest and Domination in Early China: The Western Chouís Ascension and Decline
   Conquest and Domination examines the strategy and actors instrumental in the Chouís (Zhouís) astonishing rise from an obscure clan of uncertain location to their surprising conquest of the mighty Shang at the decisive battle of Mu-yeh in 1045 BCE. Based upon traditional historical literature, extensive archaeological materials, and contemporary bronze inscriptions, the first section traces their early migrations and gradual acquisition of power and territory through both political and military means before analyzing the many physical, tactical, and psychological factors that contributed to their success. The second part is devoted to reprising and understanding the rebellion that arose within a few years, with the third then chronicling the military activities of the nearly three centuries before the Western Chouís highly melodramatic but ignominious collapse. The final section is devoted to pondering several crucial factors and raising questions about the periodís history. Particular emphasis is placed employing the insights that can be gleaned from traditional Chinese military science and understanding the importance of developments from within the subsequent historical perspective.

Lever of Power: Deception Theory and Practice in China and the West
   Although the term always had negative connotations, deception continued to be zealously employed to attain political and military aims in both China and the West throughout history. However, only China pondered its nature and developed an extensive literature on its theory and application in military contexts.
Apart from examining the conceptís parameters, Lever of Power will discuss the important categories of practice, illustrate them with numerous instances of deceptionís successful application in both cultures, and provide an overview of important pronouncements and refinements over the ages in works as diverse as Sun-tzuís Art of War, theTíai-pai Yin-ching, and the Stratagems of Frontinus and Polyaenus.

   Although our consulting obligations, current research, and writing sometime preclude individual response, we welcome comments and queries and endeavor to answer whenever possible.